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外国人餐桌上常见的十道中国美食

 Chinese food, considered to be the biggest cultural exchange between China and other countries, is famous for its colors, aromatic flavors and the variety of its regional cuisines and ingredients. The following ten dishes are each unique in their own way yet they all have exquisite flavors, wonderful presentations and deep cultural meanings.

中国菜色、香、味俱全,菜系发达,食材丰富,被誉为最好的中外文化交流大使。以下十道菜取材烹饪各有其道,却都口感上乘、外观精致、文化寓意深远。

Fried Shrimps with Cashews
腰果虾仁

 

 

外国人餐桌上常见的十道中国美食

 

Compared with the heavy tastes of Spicy Tofu, this dish is relatively light. Known for being nutritious, good-looking and tasty. Fried Shrimp and Cashews is said to protect the cardio-cerebral-vascular system and prevent cardiovascular disease. The shrimp is usually soft and easily digestible and accented by the cashews. 
相比口味较重的麻辣豆腐,本品口感清淡,向以营养丰富、色泽诱人、美味可口著称。据说腰果虾仁能有效保护心脑血管系统,预防心脑血管疾病。虾仁肉质鲜嫩,易于消化,与酥脆的腰果同炒相得益彰。

The dish is easy to cook at home. There are two very important tips that you should follow. First, if the shrimp is a bit too hard, one can put flour inside of them to soften them up. Second, one knows when the cashews have been in long enough once they start to sink in the hot water. They should then be fried until golden yellow.
腰果虾仁是道家常菜。烹饪时注意以下两点:第一,如果虾仁较老,可放些面粉,使之软嫩;第二,将腰果浸泡在热水中,一俟下沉,即可捞出炸至金黄。

Main Ingredients: shrimp, cashews and celery.
主要食材:虾仁、腰果、芹菜。

Chow Mein
炒面

 

 

外国人餐桌上常见的十道中国美食

 

Chow Mein is a rich source of nutrition and has many health benefits including improving digestion, anemia and immunity. Extremely popular in China and all over the world, this stir-fried noodle dish comes in many varieties. Cantonese Chow Mein is the most famous in Western countries. 
炒面营养丰富,有益健康,有促进消化、改善贫血、增强免疫力等功效。本品在全球都颇受欢迎,在中国尤为风靡。本品做法多样,在西方最为知名的是粤式炒面。

In American Chinese cuisine, Chow Mein consists of noodles, meat, onions and celery. It is served as a specific dish at westernized Chinese restaurants. The East and West Coasts of the United States do have some differences in preparation of this dish. On the East Coast, Chow Mein is almost always prepared in the “Hong Kong” style and crispy. On the West Coast, Chow Mein is almost always steamed and soft.
在美式中餐中,炒面用料有面条、肉、洋葱和芹菜等。这道菜被奉为西方中餐馆的特色菜。美国的东西海岸做法存在差异,东海岸的炒面类似港式,口感筋道,而西海岸大多采用蒸制,口感糯软。

Most restaurants in China cook this dish by deep frying the noodles; the fastest way to obtain the beautiful golden yellow noodles associated with this aromatic dish. 
中国大多数餐馆会先将面条油炸,以最快方式使之呈现金黄色。

Main Ingredients: noodles and oil.
主要食材:面条和食用油。

Peking Duck
北京烤鸭

 

 

外国人餐桌上常见的十道中国美食

 

Now considered to be one of China’s National Foods, the Peking Duck is prized for its eloquent taste and stunning presentation. This famous dish can be found at restaurants all around Beijing. Upscale restaurants take this dish so seriously that some even have their own duck farms and use only a special kind of duck for their specific Peking Duck dish. 
北京烤鸭味道醇厚、色泽鲜亮,被誉为国菜,北京各大饭店均有供应。高档餐馆更是考究,甚至有自己的养鸭场,以特定品种的鸭子作为原材料,制作独具特色的北京烤鸭。

The Quanjude Restaurant, one of the largest roast duck restaurants in Beijing, if not the world, opened its door in 1979. Filled to capacity, Quanjude can serve as many as 5,000 meals a day. Peking Duck is famous for its thin, crispy skin, and its delectable and aromatic meat, which is highly popular among all foreigners, including foreign celebrities and leaders.
全聚德(和平门店)建于1979年,系北京乃至全球最大的烤鸭店之一。全聚德每天最多可提供5000桌供顾客用餐,北京烤鸭外皮薄脆,肉质细嫩,口味鲜美,受到很多外国友人的大力推崇,其中不乏社会名流、国际政要。

Main Ingredients: duck, pancake and greenonions.
主要食材:鸭肉、薄饼、大葱。

Won Ton Soup
馄饨

 

 

外国人餐桌上常见的十道中国美食

 

Won Ton Soup, called “Hun Dun” in Mandarin, is a highly welcoming dish in China. Since China is a nation of diverse ethnic groups and different cultures, each region has their own shapes for won tons. Won tons are usually boiled and served in soup, but they can also be deep-fried. 
馄饨在中国备受钟爱。中国民族众多,文化各异,因此各地馄饨外形各异。馄饨一般是煮熟带汤食用,也可以油炸。

The most versatile shape for won tons is a simple right triangle. Made by folding the won ton in half and pulling together to two opposite corners, won ton’s flat profile allows it to be pan-fried like a pot sticker in addition to it being boiled or deep-fried.
馄饨最常见的形状是简单的直角三角形。制作时先将馄饨皮对折,再将对角捏合。此种馄饨外形扁平,因而可以煮制或油炸,亦可采用锅贴式做法,以平底锅煎制。

Many people mix up won tons and dumplings, but there are three major differences. First, they have different starting shapes; won tons make use of a 6cm square or isosceles trapezoid base while dumplings use a 7cm diameter circular base. Second, the “skin” used for won tons is much thinner than the “skin” used for dumplings. Finally, won tons are always found in soups while dumplings are dipped in condiments and sauces.
很多人容易混淆馄饨和水饺,事实上两者有三大区别。其一,饺子皮与馄饨皮外形不同。馄饨皮为边长约6厘米的正方形或是底边长6厘米的等腰梯形;水饺皮为直径约7厘米的圆形。其二,两者有薄厚之别,馄饨皮远薄于水饺皮。其三,馄饨一般与汤一起供应,而水饺则是配以蘸料。

Main Ingredients: pork, shrimp, vegetables and green onions.
主要食材:猪肉、虾、蔬菜、大葱。

Dumplings
饺子

 

 

外国人餐桌上常见的十道中国美食

 

During the Spring Festival, Chinese families will get together and have dumpling parties. It is said that the dish was invented by Zhang Zhongjing, one of the finest Chinese physicians in history. Dumplings have a 1,800 year long history which is why it is one of the most popular traditional foods in China and extremely popular in Western countries.
每逢春节,中国人会全家团聚,一起吃饺子。据说饺子由东汉名医张仲景首创,距今已有1800年的历史。饺子是中国最受欢迎的传统美食之一,同时也受到西方人的大力追捧。

They may be cooked by boiling, steaming, simmering, frying or baking. 
饺子的烹调方法主要有煮、蒸、炖、炸、烤等。

Dumplings feature thin skin, soft stuffing, and unique shapes. Dumpling stuffings are various, including pork, beef, cabbage, carrots, and/or onions among others. Deep cultural meanings are usually associated with this dish, for example dumplings stuffed with celery is called “qin cai jiao” in Chinese, which is a homophone for the phrase that means “hard working and lots of wealth.”
饺子皮薄馅松,造型独特。饺子馅料丰富,猪肉、牛肉、卷心菜、萝卜、洋葱等均可。饺子常有深刻的文化寓意,如用芹菜作为馅料的饺子称为芹菜饺,因“芹”“菜”分别与“勤”“财”谐音,寓意“勤劳和财富”。

Main Ingredients: meats, vegetables and flour.
主要食材:肉类、蔬菜、面粉。

Spicy Tofu (Mapo doufu)
麻辣豆腐(麻婆豆腐)

 

 

外国人餐桌上常见的十道中国美食

 

Spicy Tofu, known in Chinese as “mapo doufu”, is one of the most famous dishes from Sichuan cuisine. The dish features the trademark “hot” spiciness along with the characteristically tongue-numbing nature of Sichuan’s flavorful food. 
麻辣豆腐,又称麻婆豆腐,是川菜中最有名的菜肴之一。食用后口舌俱麻,唇齿留辣,充分体现了川菜“麻辣”的特点。

Spicy Tofu can be found in restaurants all over China, as well as in South Korea and Japan, where the flavors are adapted to local tastes. The Japanese style still retains the “spiciness”, even though spicy is not the preferred taste in Japanese cuisine, and is coupled with Japanese rice.
中国各地餐馆里均能见到麻婆豆腐。在韩国、日本也很常见,不过加入了当地风味。尽管日本料理不以“辣”见长,但日式做法仍然保留了这一特点,食用时通常搭配日本米饭。

Main Ingredients: tofu (Bean Curd) and beef. 
主要食材:豆腐、牛肉。

Egg-fried Rice
蛋炒饭

 

 

外国人餐桌上常见的十道中国美食

 

Originally from China’s ancient western regions, egg-fried rice has now become part of Chinese people’s daily cuisine. Famous for its aromatic smells, soft textures and handsome presentation, one can easily find this popular dish anywhere in China, from high class hotels to family-run restaurants on the street.
蛋炒饭最早出现于中国西部地区,现今已经成为中国人的家常菜。本品香气扑鼻、质地松软、望之令人垂涎,在中国的高级酒店或街边小摊均能见到。

While it is fairly easy to make, there are some points that should be kept in mind: use left-over rice rather than newly-cooked rice for better taste. Additionally, before frying, the rice should be churned up.
本品烹饪方法虽然简单,仍有几点需要注意:为保证口感,用剩饭而不用新饭;炒前应充分搅拌。

Main Ingredients: rice, eggs and oil.
主要食材:大米、鸡蛋、食用油。

Spring Rolls
春卷

 

 

外国人餐桌上常见的十道中国美食

 

Spring rolls are an appetizer, eaten either fresh or fried.They are usually eaten during the Spring Festival in China, hence the name. The dish bears very auspicious meanings as it resembles gold bars and people tend to link them with ideas of wealth. Of course, they also taste good.
春卷是道开胃点心,炸制或即食均可。本品通常在春节期间食用,因而得名春卷。春卷外观酷似金条,因而寓意财富。当然味道也很好。

Main Ingredients: flour, pork, vegetables and oil.
主要食材:面粉、猪肉、蔬菜、食用油。

Kung Pao (Gong Bao) Chicken
宫保鸡丁

 

 

外国人餐桌上常见的十道中国美食

 

Kung Pao Chicken is the most famous dish of Guizhou cuisine. It is popular among both Chinese and foreigners. Ask a foreigner to name some of Chinese dishes, Kung Pao Chicken will be one of them.
宫保鸡丁是一道贵州名菜,颇受中外食客青睐。如果让外国人列举几道中国菜,宫保鸡丁一定包含在内。

The dish is named after Ding Baozhen, a late Qing Dynasty official. Born in Guizhou, Ding served as the head of Shandong province and later as the governor of Sichuan province. His title, Gong Bao, or palatial guardian, is where the name Kung Pao Chicken derives.
这道菜以晚清名臣丁宝桢命名。丁宝桢原籍贵州,曾任山东巡抚,后任四川总督,逝世后被清廷追赠 “太子太保”衔,世称“丁宫保”,本品也因此得名。

Main Ingredients: chicken, dry red peppers and peanuts. 
主要食材:鸡肉、干辣椒、花生米。

Sweet and Sour Pork
咕咾肉/糖醋鸡

 

 

外国人餐桌上常见的十道中国美食

 

Sweet and Sour Pork is a Chinese dish that is particularly popular in Cantonese cuisine and can also be found in Zhejiang cuisine, Sichuan cuisine, and Shandong cuisine. The dish is now popular all over the world. With its great look and taste, Sweet and Sour Pork takes the cake among foreigners’ favorite Chinese dishes.
咕咾肉是一道经典名菜,在浙菜、粤菜、川菜、鲁菜中都有一席之地,其中以粤菜做法最负盛名。现今这道菜闻名全球。本品酸甜可口、色泽诱人, 是外国人最为青睐的中国菜肴之一。

Main Ingredients: pork tenderloin, soy sauce, ketchup, salt, vinegar, bell pepper and onion.
主要食材:猪里脊肉、酱油、番茄酱、食盐、醋、甜椒、洋葱。

译/游琼琼 审订/仲文明

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